In terms of overall performance, borosilicate glass is far superior to regular glass. Additionally, the way glass if fabricated is explored, along with some of the various ways glass can be treated or finished after fabrication. Lead crystal with added nickel acquires purplish color. They are made from petroleum, and they almost always end up in either a landfill, lake or ocean. The composition of low-expansion borosilicate glass, such as those laboratory glasses mentioned above, is approximately 80% silica, 13% boric oxide, 4% sodium oxide and 2–3% aluminium oxide. Aluminosilicate glass contains aluminum oxide. *Fun fact, borosilicate glass is so resistant to chemicals, that it is even used to store nuclear waste. A common stabilizer is calcium oxide, from limestone. All Rights Reserved. Image credit: Nutnaree Saingwongwattana/Shutterstock.com. Fused quartz is also found in some laboratory equipment when its higher melting point and transmission of UV are required (e.g. This is usually done with Computer Numerical Control machines, or CNC machines, which are capable of extremely precise operations. Since borosilicate glass resists chemicals and acid degradation, you don’t need to worry about stuff seeping into your water. Due to its high heat resistance, it can tolerate the significant temperature difference between the water and the nichrome heating element. Soda lime glass is also known as soda ash glass, soda glass, commercial glass or soft glass which is obtained from the fusion of a mixture of silica, lime, soda and alumina. These items generally demand extreme precision, and surface tolerances must be exact in order for components to function as desired. It can also be called bulletproof glass. Top Glass Manufacturing Companies and Suppliers in the USA, All About Aluminosilicate Glass - What You Need to Know, Laboratory Glassware: Types of Laboratory Flasks, All About Soda Lime Glass - Composition and Properties. The amount of boric oxide affects the glass properties in a particular way. [citation needed], The thermal insulation tiles on the Space Shuttle were coated with a borosilicate glass.[14]. Carbon dioxide is evolved during the reaction. Uranium glass is typically not radioactive enough to be dangerous, but if ground into a powder, such as by polishing with sandpaper, and inhaled, it can be carcinogenic. This is a subtype of slightly softer glasses, which have thermal expansions in the range (4.0–5.0) × 10−6 K−1. It is likely the single most important material in astronomy, which was originally made possible by the use of different glass lenses. CNC machines operate according to specific CAM and CAD software programs, which enable them to machine any number of workpieces with identical precision. In the United States, 'Pyrex' became synonymous with borosilicate glass after Corning Glass Works inventor Joe Littleton introduced it to the English speaking world in 1915.Though borosilicate glass was at first widely used for kitchen glassware, thermometer glass and railroad lanterns, there are now very few companies using it for that purpose, simply because it is more difficult to produce, and hence more expensive.

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